Companion to Chapter 6

Negotiations, Re-contextualizations and Re-significations of Arsi Oromo ateetee Prayers by Vernacular Belief Practitioners and Protestants in the Kokossa District of Oromiya

by Leila Qashu

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


This page mainly contains references to the doctoral dissertation of Leila Qashu,

  • Toward an Understanding of Justice, Belief, and Women’s Rights: Ateetee, an Arsi Oromo Women’s Sung Dispute Resolution Process in Ethiopia. PhD diss., Memorial University of Newfoundland, 2016. [online version]


(modified from Qashu, Toward an Understanding, 11)


Ateetee (on YouTube)

published in 2020:

Interview / group discussion:

Additional Video

» View presentation by Leila Qashu on “Participatory/Collaborative and Improvisational Multimedia Workshops Among Young Arsi Oromo Women in Ethiopia: Responding to Violence, Exploring Challenges, Demonstrating Resistance.”

Audio Recordings

[Qashu, Toward an Understanding, p. 454, lists her audio tracks and videos]

Musical notations

See Qashu, Toward an Understanding,

  • p. 142: Ateetee qororo diiraa ... [also in her EGM chapter]
  • p. 241: Gooftaa kiyya … [also in her EGM chapter]
  • p. 374: Haadha heessee
  • p. 377: Ateetiyyoo
  • [p. 429f: ateetee song texts]

Photographs relating to ateetee

See Qashu,Toward an Understanding,

  • p. 1: Photograph of Arsi Oromo women gathered in a circle, singing ateetee at a ceremony in Gutuu, near Kokossa, Ethiopia. April, 2011.
  • [p. 129: Photographs of men‘s and women’s saddeetta, 2012]
  • p. 130: Photographs of negotiations at ateetee ceremony, 2012
  • p. 139: Photograph of ateetee fala, 2011 [used in chapter]
  • p. 151: Photograph of ateetee fala, 2011
  • p. 164: Photograph of grass offered at the end of ateetee fala, 2011
  • p. 260f, 277f, 288, 293, 295: Photographs of (women with) siinqee
  • p. 355 [ch. 7: Singing for results]
  • p. 380: ateetee women singing in a circle, 2012
  • p. 394: Dressed for ateetee (group incl. LQ)
  • p. 395: Group of ateetee women singing

Profiles of gospel musicians

Some of the early evangelical gospel singers were from the Arsi area, but sang in Amharic at the time, such as

Other Online Resources

  • Waaqeffannaa
    Website introducing Oromo Indigenous Religion
    (managed by “Group of Waaqeffannaa Assembly” (Norway)

Further Readings

Bartels, Lambert. “Dabo: A Form of Cooperation between Farmers among the Macha Galla of Ethiopia. Social Aspects, Songs, and Ritual.” Anthropos 70, no. 5-6 (1975): 883–925. [online version]

Gemechu J. Geda. “Pilgrimages and Syncretism: Religious Transformation among the Arsi Oromo of Ethiopia.” PhD diss., University of Bayreuth, 2014. [online version]

Maro, Anaïs. “Imagining Oromumma… in Music: A History of Oromo Nationalism and the Birth of Oromo Music.” Presentation at the 2nd Global Conference on Music & Nationalism, Palermo (Italy), June 2018. [online version]

Qashu, Leila. “The Individual and the Group in the Songs of Arsi Oromo Men”, Annales d’Éthiopie 23 (2008): 115–133. [online version]

Qashu, Leila. La musique dans le mariage Arsi Oromo. Master’s thesis, Université Paris VIII, 2004.

Talilee B. Fiqruu. “Reviving Aspects of Ateetee: An Arsi Oromo Women’s Musical Ritual to Empower Women to Protect Their Human Rights and Participate in Society’s Social and Religious Life.” DMin diss., Portland Seminary, George Fox University, 2018. [online version]