[work in progress!]
Yared the melodious was born in Axum around 501
[Wikipedia: 505; elsewhere: 493 GC; Andualem 2019: “At the beginning of the 6th century”].
He was named Yared after the father of Enoch in the Bible (Genesis 5:18). Yared went to the church school but struggled to grasp the reading and memorization of the Psalms. Hagiography has it that he was inspired to persevere in learning while watching an ant managing to crawl up a tree’s bark only after six failed attempts.
Yared eventually became the father of Ethiopian traditional church education. He pioneered biblical interpretation, hymnody and liturgical dance, yet is best known for his musical compositions. His antiphonary books also contributed to the Qene poetry in classical Ethiopic.
According to Ethiopian tradition, God sent three white birds from heaven to Yared, foretelling him that he will learn to recite the hymnody of the 24 heavenly priests. Having seen the divine liturgy, Yared immediately began to compose poetic hymns and went to the sacred Zion Church of Axum. There, in the year 541, he offered praise to the Trinity and improvised the following hymn that connects creation, Sabbath and the Ark (tabot):
In the beginning, God made the Heaven and the Earth;Translation by Hailu Habtu (1997), p. xxii
And having completed all, He rested on the Sabbath;
And Said He to Noah at the onset of the Flood:
“Build yourself an Ark by which you may be saved.”
Decades later, Yared sang before King Gabra Masqal. Mesmerized by the melody, the king pierced Yared’s foot. However, Yared was so enveloped by contemplation that he did not notice his wound. The saint spent his twilight years as a hermit. It is believed that he passed away [Q: in the Semien mountains?] in 576.
Yared’s five hymnodic works are Deggwa, Tsome Deggwa, Mieraf, Zemare and Mewasit. They are used for various liturgical occasions (including funerals and feasts) and Ethiopia’s liturgical year and agricultural seasons.
[Q: Is it preferable to explain each of the works rather than a general introduction? E.g., Andualem Dagmawi 2019, chapter 1]
Since classic Ethiopic manuscripts are revered as sacred objects of the church, Yared’s hymns and chants remained stable. However, his students introduced minor additions. Other scribes slightly revised the text and music notations (Q: during the times of Emperor Zar’a Ya’eqob?).
The three dominant musical instruments in the liturgy are the prayer staff (Tau-cross [Q: should we call it a music “instrument” or compare it to a “conductor’s baton”?]), the sistrum and the drum.
The major Yaredic melodies [Q: modes?] represent persons of the Trinity:
- The Ge’ez tune (not the classic Ethiopic language) symbolizes the Father. It is hard and stern.
- The Izl melody is gentle and full of love. It is a representation of the Son.
- The Araray tune, symbolizing the Holy Spirit, has a melancholic quality. It is used for occasions like Lent and funerals.
[Q: Add a short paragraph on 8 out of the 10 music notations (: Yizet, Deret, Rikrik, Difat, Cheret, Qenat, Hidet, Qurt;
but NOT (the added) Dirs and Anbir?]
[Q: Add a concluding sentence/paragraph?]
Album with Yaredean Hymns
(1) Ethiopia I: Copts. Music Of The Ethiopian Coptic Church (UNESCO Collection of Traditional Music of the World. An Anthology of African Music, 4). Recorded by Jean Jenkins in Addis Ababa in 1965. Kassel: Bärenreiter-Musicaphon. [See tracklist on discogs.com]
On Yared the Melodious
[Q: Which of the following clips should be included? ]
(ETV; 2012; 20k visits)
Delete this one? EBS, 2013; 5k visits;
The following clip is from 2017 (3k visits):
On EOTC liturgy
» see page on EOTC Liturgy (Resource Section of this website)
For further study
Vatican Aeth. 28
(Oldest complete Degwwa that has been preserved,
Soma Deggwa [inclomplete]; 15th century)
» Read online
EMML 7078 (Ethiopian Manuscript Microfilm Library)
(Arba’t arranged by melodic group; 12th–13th century;
» Read online in VHMML
(Virtual Reading Room of Hill Museum & Manuscript Library;
registration necessary [no paywall])
(Mazmur, liturgical order; 14th century)
» Read online in VHMML
(Arba’t, liturgical order; 14th–15th century)
» Read online in VHMML
Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale, eth. 92
(several collections; 15th century)
[Didn’t find an online version yet]
(Deggwa, Soma Deggwa; 15th–early 16th century)
» Read online in VHMML
(Deggwa, Soma Deggwa, Me’raf [Tagulat?]; 16th century)
» Read online in VHMML
Other primary sources
Lisane Worq Gabra Giyorgis [Meri Geta] (1997). Tintawi Serate Mahelet ZeAbuna Yared. (“The Ancient Order of Singing of our Father Yared, the Master“). Addis Ababa: Maison des Etudes Ethiopiennes.
Velat, Bernard, ed. and transl. (1969). Soma Deggua: Antiphonaire du Carême;, quatre premières semaines (Patrologia Orientalis, vols. 32.3-4 [no. 153-154]). Paris: Firmin-Didot, etc.
Budge, E.A. Wallis (1920). The Book of the Saints of the Ethiopian Church: A translation of the Ethiopic Synaxarium made from the manuscripts Oriental 660 and 661 in the British Museum. 4 vols. Cambridge: University Press. [vol. 3, pp. 875–877 on Yared; read OCR online, pp. 503-504]
Conti Rossini, Carlo, ed. and Latin transl. (1904). Acta Yārēd et Ṗanṭalēwon (Corpus Scriptorum Christianorum Orientalium, 2nd ser., 17. Paris: C. Poussielgue. [Reprinted in 1961 as Corpus Scriptorum Christianorum Orientalium, 26–27; Scriptores Aethiopici, 9–10. Louvain: Peeters.] [@ TÜ Theologicum]
Andualem Dagmawi Gobena (2019). Soteriology in the Ethiopian Orthodox Täwaḥədo Church as Reflected in the Liturgical Hymns of the Dəggʷa of Yared. PhD dissertation. Toronto: St. Michael’s College and the Graduate Centre for Theological Studies of the Toronto School of Theology. [Read online]
Ayele Bekerie (2007). “St. Yared – the great Ethiopian composer”, Tadias Magazine. [Read online]
Brita, Antonella (2014). “Yared”, in: A. Bausi (ed.): Encylopaedia Aethiopica, vol. 5, 26-28. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag.
Ephraim Isaac (2012). The Ethiopian Orthodox Tawahido Church ((Afroasiatic Studies). Trenton: The Red Sea Press.
Fritsch, Emmanuel (2001). The Liturgical Year of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church. The Temporal: Seasons and Sundays (Ethiopian Review of Cultures. Special Issue). Addis Ababa, 2001.
Getachew Haile (2017). “Some Notes on Priest Yared and His Contribution”, in: Ethiopian Studies in Honour of Amha Asfaw. New York: No publisher mentioned. [pages?]
Habtemichael Kidane (2005), “Dəggʷa”, in: S. Uhlig, ed., Encyclopaedia Aethiopica, vol. 2, p. 123–124. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag.
Hailu Habtu (1997). “Introduction”, in: Tintawi Serate Mahelet ZeAbuna Yared. The Ancient Order of Singing of our Father Yared, the Master (Addis Ababa: Maison Des Etudes Ethiopiennes, 1997), XVI. [Q: Only the intro or the whole book written by Hailu Habtu?]
Irvine, A. K., and Sergew Hable-Selassie (1975). “Yared”, in: Belaynesh Michael, S. Chojnacki and R. Pankhurst (eds.), The Dictionary of Ethiopian Biography, vol. 1. Addis Ababa: Institute of Ethiopian Studies. (Reproduced with permission in: Dictionary of African Christian Bibliography. [Read online]
Lee, Ralph (2017). “St Yared and the Ethiopian Tradition”, in: Th.C. Oden with C. Niccum (eds.), The Songs of Africa: The Ethiopian Canticles, p. 11-22. New Haven, CT: ICCS Press.
Pérès, Jacques-Noël (2000). “La Chenille et les oiseaux: Yãrêd le Mélode dans la tradition de l’église d’Éthiopie”, in: A.M. Traiacca and A. Pistoria (eds.), L’Hymnographie: Conférences Saint-Serge XLVIe Semaine d’Etudes Liturgiques. Paris, 29 Juin–2 Juillet 1999, p. 47–55. Roma: Edizioni Liturgiche.
Shelemay, Kay Kaufman, Peter Jeffery and Ingrid Monson (1993). “Oral and written transmission in Ethiopian Christian chant”, Early Music History 12: 55–117. [Read online]
Taddesse Tamrat (1985). “A Short Note on the Ethiopian Church Music”, Annales d’Ethiopie 13: 135–143. [Read online]
Tedros Abraha (2009). “Quotations from Patristic Writings and References to Early Christian Literature in the Books of St. Yared”, Le Museon 122 (3–4): 331–404. [Read online; paywall]
Tekletsadik Belachew (2020). “From Abba Salama to King Lalibela: Christian Traditions in Ethiopia are among the Oldest in the World”, Journal of African Christian Biography 5/4 (2020): 60–66. [Read online]
Probably more general publications
(-> Move to bibliography or even delete?)
Ashenafi Kebede (1995). Roots of Black Music: The Vocal, Instrumental & Dance Heritage of Africa and Black America. Trenton, N.J. Africa World Press.
Habtemichael Kidane (1997). “L’ ufficio divino del Deggwa” nel Salota Sa’atat [= Preghiera delle Ore] dei Cappucini della Provinicia di S. Francesco d’Assisi in Eritrea”, ART [? abbreviation ?] 65-66: 63 – 86. [Probabl. too difficult too access (no online version?) and we don’t have that many readers speaking Italian]
Habtemichael Kidane (2008). Bibiografia Della Liturgia Etiopica. Roma: Pontificio Istituto Orientale
N.N. (1970). The Church of Ethiopia: A Panorama of History and Spiritual Life. A Publication of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church [Reprinted 1997].
Habtä Maryam Wärqénäh [Like Siltanat] (1976). Tintawi YeEthiopia Timihirt. (‘The Old Order of Ethiopian Learning’), Addis Ababa [In Amharic.]
— Tekletsadik Belachew