Histories of Christianity in Ethiopia

General Introduction

Getachew Haile (2004). “Ethiopia”, in: D. Betz et al. (eds.), Religion Past and Present: Encyclopedia of Theology and Religion, vol. 4. Leiden and Boston: E.J. Brill.

Hastings, Adrian (1994). The Church in Africa: 1450-1950 (The Oxford History of the Christian Church). Oxford: Clarendon Press.
[Google Books; on Ethiopia see esp. chapters 1, 4 and 6]

Sundkler, Bengt and Christopher Steed (2000). A History of the Church in Africa. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
[Google Books; On Ethiopia, see esp. p. 34ff, 73ff, 150-168, 694-699, 927-931]

History of the Evangelical Movement

Tibebe Eshete (2009). The Evangelical Movement in Ethiopia: Resistance and Resilience. Waco, TX: Baylor University Press. [Amazon]

Regional and Specific Aspects of the Evangelical Movement

Ahrens, Christel and Ebise Ashana, eds. (2020). In Memory of Them: Women witnessing to Christ in Ethiopia (1870-2019) (Contributions to Mission Studies/Intercultural Theology, 48). Zürich: Lit Verlag. [Google Books]
[Oromo edition: Christel Ahrens / Ebisee Ashanaa, eds. (2021). Seenaa isaaniitiif in dubbatama: Lixa Itoophiyaa Keessatti dubartoota Kristosiif dhugaa ba’an. (Oslo: R-Media?)]

Arén, Gustav (1978). Evangelical Pioneers in Ethiopia: Origins of the Evangelical Church Mekane Yesus (Studia Missionalia Upsaliensia, 32). Stockholm: EFS förlaget; Addis Ababa: Evangelical Church Mekane Yesus.

Arén, Gustav (1999). Envoys of the Gospel in Ethiopia: In the Steps of the Evangelical Pioneers 1898-1936 (Studia Missionalia Upsaliensis, 75). Stockholm: EFS förlaget; Addis Ababa: The [Ethiopian] Evangelical Church Mekane Yesus.

Bakke, Johnny (1987). Christian Ministry: Patterns and Functions within the Ethiopian Evangelical Church Mekane Yesus (Studia missionalia Upsaliensia, 44). Oslo: Solum Forlag; Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press International.

Balisky, E. Paul (2009). Wolaitta Evangelists: A Study of Religious Innovation in Southern Ethiopia, 1937-1975 (American Society of Missiology Monograph Series, 6). Eugene, OR: Pickwick Publications. [Google Books]

Bascom, Kay (2018). Overcomers: God’s Deliverance through the Ethiopian Revolution as Witnessed Primarily by the Kale Heywet Church Community (Christians under Pressure: Studies in Discrimination and Persecution, 2). Bonn: Culture and Science Publ. [PDF version]

Debela Birri (2014). Divine Plan Unfolding: The Story of Ethiopian Evangelical Church Bethel. Minneapolis, MN: Lutheran Univ. Press.

Desta Heliso et al., eds. (work in progress). History of the Hadiyya Kale Heywet Church (working title; in Amharic).

Egeland, Erik (2016). Christianity, Generation and Narrative: Religious Conversion and Change in Sidama, Ethiopia, 1974-2012 (Studia Missionalia Svecana, 116). Uppsala: Uppsala University, Department of Theology. [DiVA Record]

Eide, Øyvind E. (2000). Revolution & Revolution in Ethiopia: The Growth & Persecution of the Mekane Yesus Church 1974-85. Rev. edition (Eastern African Studies). Oxford: James Currey; Athens: Ohio Univ. Press; Addis Ababa: Addis Ababa Univ. Press.

Fargher, Brian L. (1996), The Origins of the New Churches Movement in Southern Ethiopia, 1927-1944 (Studies on Religion in Africa, 16). Leiden and New York: E.J. Brill. [Google Books]

Fekadu Gurmessa (2009). Evangelical Faith Movement in Ethiopia: Origins and Establishment of the Ethiopian Evangelical Church Mekane Yesus. Translated and edited by Ezekiel Gebissa. Minneapolis, MN: Lutheran University Press.

Grenstedt, Staffan (2000). Ambaricho and Shonkolla. From Local Independent Church to the Evangelical Mainstream in Ethiopia. The Origins of the Mekane Yesus Church in Kambata Hadiya (Studia Missionalia Svecana, 82). Uppsala: Swedish Institute of Missionary Research. [digital version]

Haustein, Jörg (2014). “Pentecostal and Charismatic Christianity in Ethiopia: A Historical Introduction to a Largely Unexplored Movement”, in: H. Elliesie (ed.), Multidisciplinary Views on the Horn of Africa (Studien zum Horn von Afrika, 1), p. 109-127. Köln: Köppe Verlag. [PDF at Academia.edu]

Hege, Nathan B. (1998). Beyond Our Prayers: Anabaptist Church Growth in Ethiopia, 1948-1998. Scottdale, PA and Waterloo: Herald Press. [On Meserete Kristos Church]

Launhardt, Johannes (2004). Evangelicals in Addis Ababa (1919-1991): With special reference to the Ethiopian Evangelical Church Mekane Yesus and the Addis Ababa Synod (Studien zur Orientalischen Kirchengeschichte, 31). Münster: LIT Verlag. 

Rønne, Finn Aa. (2002). Kontinuitet og forandring: Opkomsten og udviklingen af protestantisk kristendom i Kambaataa-Hadiyya, Etiopien – 1928 til 1974. Copenhagen: Akademisk Forlag. [English summary on p. 466-473]

Wondiye Ali (1998). Ba-mekera Wust Yabebech Bete Kristiyan (“Church of out tribulation”). Addis Ababa: Ethiopian Kale Heywet Church Literature Department.

Wondiye Ali (2000). Ya Ekule Lelit Wegegta (“Awakening at midnight [The Story of the Kale Heywet Church in Ethiopia, vol. 2]). Addis Ababa: Ethiopian Kale Heywet Church Literature Department.


» Watch documentary on Lutheran mission work
(released around 1964)

Churches not affiliated with the Evangelical Churches Fellowship of Ethiopia

» See the respective bibliography in the Vignettes and Liturgy sections

In addition:

Binns, John (2020). The Orthodox Church of Ethiopia: A History. Paperpack edition. London: T & T Clark [Hardcover: London and New York: I.B. Tauris, 2016; Google Books]

Krebs, Verena (2021). Medieval Ethiopian Kingship, Craft, and Diplomacy with Latin Europe. Cham (Switzerland): Palgrave Macmillan. [Google Books]

Paulau, Stanislau (2020). Das andere Christentum: Zur transkonfessionellen Verflechtungsgeschichte von äthiopischer Orthodoxie und europäischem Protestantismus (Veröffentlichungen des Instituts für Europäische Geschichte Mainz, Abteilung für Abendländische Religionsgeschichte, 262). Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. [Online]

» Use deepl.com or a similar service
if you want an English translation

Esler, Philip F. (2019). Ethiopian Christianity: History, Theology, Practice. Waco, TX: Baylor University Press.

Seblewengel Daniel (2019). Perception and Identity: A Study of the Relationship between the Ethiopian Orthodox Church and Evangelical Churches in Ethiopia. Carlisle, Cumbria: Langham Monographs. [Google Books]

For further study

Abbink, J. (2003). A bibliography of Christianity in Ethiopia (ASC Working Paper, 52). Leiden: African Studies Centre.

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